The Mutual Recognition Agreement is an intergovernmental agreement that defines the conditions under which one party recognizes the results of compliance assessment procedures established by another party`s compliance assessment agencies, which demonstrate compliance with appropriate technical standards or regulations;1 Lexchin J, Gleeson D. The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement and pharmaceutical regulation in Canada and Australia. Int J Health Serv Plan Adm Eval. 2016;46 (4):597-613.10. Buchanan K. New Zealand: Agreements with five countries conclude mandatory investor-state dispute settlement procedures [Internet]. Bilaterals.org 2018 [quote 2019 Feb 21]. Available at: www.bilaterals.org/?new-zealand-agreements-with-five (d) reach agreement on priority areas of common interest for future work under this chapter and consider proposals for new sectoral initiatives or other initiatives; Based on the methods used in previous health impact studies of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement, we conducted a detailed analysis of the USMCA chapters that have a direct or indirect impact on health. We started with a first reading of the entire agreement, followed by several line-by-line readings of key chapters. The secondary sources and inter-rate (comparative) analyses of the four authors were used to ensure rigorous evaluations.
The appendixs in Chapter 3 have other regulatory restrictions. In the US/Mexico annex, for example, Mexico is required to treat “sugars or syrup products” from the United States in the same way, which are mainly high fructose corn syrups (HFCS). Some studies show that HFCS poses more health risks than other forms of sweeteners and that its increased use (mainly by U.S. exports) is associated with higher rates of obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes [27,28,29]. A recent NAFTA study 1.0 showed that tariff reductions for food and beverage syrups containing CFCs were associated with a 41% increase in per capita sugar in Canada; Other OECD countries that did not have trade agreements with the United States did not experience such an increase . Appendix 3-C contains provisions allowing suppliers of distilled spirits and wines to report information requested by an importing country (including health information) on a complementary label, such as. B, a sticker affixed to the container after importation. Like similar provisions in Schedule 8-A of the CPTPP, these rules could thwart efforts to introduce important and effective health warnings on alcohol containers, if designed to prevent the necessary information from taking over the main labels . The USMCA text appears to further limit political leeway by stipulating that complementary denominations “must not contradict information on an existing label” (Annex 3.C.3.6), which reinforces the idea that mandatory information should be demoted to an unutilized space on the container. The value of this chapter must also be seen in light of the text of Appendix 4-B, which states that, to avoid import duties in the United States, there must be 40-45% automotive content (including parts and assembly) in jobs that pay $16/h, most in production (factory employment).
This scheme is a first attempt to incorporate a guaranteed minimum wage into a trade agreement. Some trade analysts argue that a smaller gap between U.S. and Mexican auto workers could divert investment (and employment) from Mexico to the United States .