● In situ access only: authorization or notification is only required if access is within the geographical limits of the provider country. This is the classic case of access provided by CBD, where a researcher takes a sample of a genetic resource in a field/forest/nature reserve/public or private land (CBD.int, 2011). With the exception of academic users, all interested parties have agreed that joint ventures are a monetary option to offset benefits. It is assumed that academic users might not involve a joint venture in the creation of a joint corporate structure and the use of genetic resources as part of that undertaking (as other stakeholders have perceived joint ventures as such). For academic users, joint ventures seem to draw attention to research cooperation with local institutions in the supplier country. Publisher and reviewer memberships are the most recent that are indicated in their looping search profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of the audit. ● Fee: there is no uniform definition of fees in the area of ABS; However, this method of payment is more common in the field of industrial property. According to the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), a licensing agreement is a partnership between one owner of intellectual property rights (licensor) and another who has the right to use those rights (licensees) against an agreed payment that appears in the form of royalties or royalties. Royalties are pay-based payments, while royalties are often periodic (World Intellectual Property Organization, 2004). Royalties have been used in the field of ABS in several cases. Most countries (e.g.B. Uganda, India) mention it as a kind of monetary advantage option within their framework.
This manual contains a series of standard clauses for the negotiation of access and welfare contracts (ABS) and explanations that are easy to understand for non-lawyers. The toolbox allows users and providers of genetic resources and related traditional knowledge to conclude an agreement tailored to the situation of individual academic research. If it is negotiated and mutually agreed by the parties concerned, it can result in an ABS contract with “Mutually Agreed Terms”. The toolkit contains sectoral standard contractual clauses for scientific research within the meaning of Article 19.1 of the Nagoya Protocol. Some countries, such as Vietnam, list different options for offsetting benefits, without distinguishing between their monetary and non-monetary nature. It should also be noted that some of the benefit offsetting options that can be found under the Bonn Guidelines are not included here, as they did not exist in most of the abs frameworks in the countries studied in this study. . . .